Today, its numbers have dwindled to some 120 individuals divided between small populations in Spain's Andalusia region.
There are no more than 7,500 Sumatran orangutans left in the world, and they are declining at a rate of roughly 1,000 per year.
Northern Hairy-Nosed Wombat (maybe a different name would help?)
A mere 100 individuals survive in a small, protected area in Queensland.
Wild Bactrian Camel
Although the camel survived a 45-year period of nuclear testing in China's Gashun Gobi, it may not be able to withstand current pressures, which include mining, hunting, wolf predation, industrial development and genetic mixing with domestic camels.
Populations of no more than 100 are sprinkled throughout north Africa—in Chad, Niger and Mali.
Seychelles Sheath-Tailed Bat
There may be only 50 to 100 of these furry flying mammals left on the planet.
This secretive mini-alligator, which rarely grows longer than two meters or heavier than 40 kilograms, dwells in the wetlands of the lower reaches of the Yangtze—the same river that sheltered the rare and probably now extinct Chinese river dolphin.
Their horns are highly valued for use as ornaments and for their "medicinal" properties, even though they are simply made of keratin, the same protein found in fingernails and hair.
Often called the "bare-faced tamarin" for its hairless face and ears, the pied tamarin inhabits only a small area of land surrounding Manaus, a city of two million in northwestern Brazil.
Leatherbacks are the largest of all sea turtles, measuring as long as eight feet and weighing as much as 2,000 pounds.
Get a good look at them for they'll no doubt be extinct before long.